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Aluminium Die Casting - An Efficient Manufacturing Process for Complex Metal Parts

Aluminium die casting is a versatile manufacturing process used to produce metal parts and components with complex geometries and excellent mechanical properties. In this process, molten aluminium alloy is injected with high pressure into a steel mould, called a die. The aluminium solidifies and takes the shape of the die cavity. Aluminium die casting is ideal for high volume production of intricate parts at low per-unit costs. In this article, we will explore what aluminium die casting is, its key benefits, the manufacturing process, and some of the leading die casting companies in India.

What is Aluminium Die Casting?

Aluminium die casting refers to forcing molten aluminium alloy under high pressure into a mould cavity to manufacture products and components. It is efficient at producing intricate, repeatable, and dimensionally stable metal parts in high volumes. Die casting moulds, called dies, can be designed to produce complex shapes, including internal features like threads and gear teeth. This gives die cast parts excellent dimensional accuracy and surface finish.

The aluminium alloys used in die casting contain silicon, copper, magnesium, zinc, and nickel as major alloying elements. Alloys like AlSi12 and AlSi10Mg are commonly used. Melting is done in a furnace and the molten metal is injected into the die using a hydraulic or mechanical piston at high velocities and under high clamping forces, to ensure proper flow and rapid solidification.

Benefits of Aluminium Die Casting

- High dimensional accuracy and repeatability. Parts can be mass produced with precision.

- Complex shapes possible, including hidden and intricate contours. Thin walls and sections possible.

- Excellent surface finish possible.

- High production rates and low cost per unit compared to other methods.

- Variety of aluminium alloys available to achieve required properties.

- Heat treatment can enhance mechanical properties of parts.

- Minimal scrap loss since unused metal can be recycled.

The Aluminium Die Casting Process

The major steps involved in the aluminium die casting manufacturing process are:

1. Die Design and Manufacture - Dies are made of tool steel and contain two halves. They must withstand high pressures and temperatures. The dies carry the negative imprint of the desired final product.

2. Melting and Dosing - Aluminium ingots are melted in a furnace and the molten metal is dosed into a shot chamber. Precise dosing maintains metal quality.

3. Injection - The molten metal is rapidly injected into the die under high pressure of around 1000 to 2000 psi. This allows the metal to properly flow and fill the die cavity.

4. Cooling and Solidification - Cooling lines in the die rapidly cool the molten metal. High thermal conductivity of aluminium allows fast cooling. This results in fine grain size and improved strength.

5. Ejection - Once solidified, the die separates and the casting is ejected using guide pins and ejector pins. This protects the casting surface from damage.

6. Trimming and Finishing - Any runners, overflow material, and flashing are removed from the casting, which is then inspected and finished to achieve the final dimensions.

7. Heat Treatment - For enhanced strength and hardness, die cast parts may be solution heat treated, quenched, and artificially aged.

Aluminium die casting is ideal for parts like electronics housings, control arms, gears, pistons, and valves. Industries like automotive, aerospace, construction, medical, and consumer appliances utilize this process. When done right, it delivers dimensionally accurate, affordable, and durable aluminium parts.

Leading Aluminium Die Casting Companies in India

India has emerged as a major aluminium die casting hub thanks to availability of raw materials, skilled manpower, and cost competitiveness. Here are some of the leading die casting companies in India:

1. Tata Autocomp Systems Limited - Part of the Tata Group, it caters to the automotive sector with high-pressure die casting parts and tooling. Headquartered in Pune.

2. Sundaram Alloys - Specializes in aluminium and zinc die casting for over 50 years. Supplies to automotive and engineering sectors. Based in Pune.

3. Rockman Industries Ltd. - Major supplier of aluminium die cast parts to two wheeler and auto companies. Has plants in Haryana.

4. Premier Precision Components - Manufactures aluminium and magnesium die cast parts for automobiles and other industries from its plants in Pune.

5. Yogiraj Alloys Pvt Ltd - Offers aluminium and zinc die casting and caters to leading auto firms. Its plant is in Chennai.

6. Donear Industries - Involved in aluminium high pressure die casting for 30 years. Supplies to auto, telecom, and machine tool sectors. Located in Satara, Maharashtra.

7. Bemco Alloys - Specialized in aluminium gravity and low pressure die casting with customers across India. Head office in Thane.

8. Shreeman Alloys Pvt Ltd - Wide range of aluminium, zinc, and magnesium die casting with finishing operations. Situated in Pune.

9. Peekay Automotive Components - Supplies a variety of aluminium die castings for two and four wheelers. Based in Pune.

10. Juco Alloys Pvt Ltd - Die casting company providing aluminium and zinc parts. Caters to leading industrial OEMs. Situated in Delhi NCR.

The wide range of high quality aluminium die casting companies in India, combined with the latest technologies and automated processes, make the country a preferred destination for sourcing high-volume, cost-effective die cast parts. The experience and expertise present here ensures customers get dimensional accuracy, repeatability, and performance from their aluminium die cast components. CNC Milling CNC Machining